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NSW Department of Education and Communities

Curriculum support for NSW Public Schools

Stage 2

Untitled Document This page identifies some examples of literacy and numeracy demands found in Science teaching and learning. Each example lists the expectations as described by NSW syllabus documents.


  • Information report
  • Procedural text
  • Procedural recount
  • Explanation
  • Tables
  • Graphs
  • Drawings
  • Models

Information report

What is its purpose?

The purpose of an information report is to classify and describe general classes of phenomenon by organising and recording factual information. It may be oral or written. Information report structure typically includes an opening statement (often a classification of definition), a series of paragraphs describing various aspects and features of the topic and a summary paragraph.

What are the expectations at Stage 2?

At Stage 2 students are expected to independently construct information reports that:

  • use correct writing structure with a clear statement of topic at the beginning
  • include subheadings about components or features and an index in longer reports
  • classify and organise information  into paragraphs
  • include extended description of each feature
  • use some technical language
  • show evidence of topic knowledge, derived from research
  • support text with labelled sketches and/or diagrams where relevant.

Example of an information report expected at Stage 2:

information report stage 2Information report stage 2


Procedural text


What is its purpose?

The purpose of a procedure is to describe a set of instructions/steps, required to achieve a goal or outcome. It is useful in planning investigations and allowing repetition of investigations. It can also be used in Technology to record the steps required for production. The goal is stated in the title, materials are listed in order of use, steps/instructions are written in chronological order using numbers.

What are the expectations at Stage 2?

At Stage 2 students are expected to independently construct procedures that:

  • organise text under appropriate headings, e.g. aim, materials, steps
  • use simple flowcharts
  • include simple technical language
  • include time connectives, e.g. next, after, finally
  • include adverbial phrases to describe actions, e.g. with your hand
  • relate clear non-ambiguous steps that allow repetition or replication
  • include diagrams, sketches accompanying text
  • refer to safety measures
  • describe process of data collection.

An example of a procedure expected at Stage 2:

Procedure_stage 2


Procedural recount

What is its purpose?

The purpose of a procedural recount is to record (orally and in writing) the steps taken to achieve a particular goal/outcome, after doing a procedure. It is written in sequential order and may be included in a scientific journal. It is useful in recording and evaluating the technology process.

What are the expectations at Stage 2?

At Stage 2 students are expected to independently construct procedural recounts that:

  • recount steps in sequential order, using time connectives of procedures undertaken in the classroom
  • include sequencing words
  • include simple subject-specific language
  • include illustrations and diagrams to support text
  • evaluate experiences through reflection.

Examples of a procedural recount expected at Stage 2:

Procedural recount stage 2




What is its purpose?

The purpose of an explanation is to explain scientifically how technological and natural phenomena come into being. It may be included in a scientific journal or a report of an investigation.

What are the expectations at Stage 2?

At Stage 2, students are expected to write explanations that:

  • include a question heading identifying phenomenon to be explained
  • describe explanation sequence in a range of formats, e.g. flowcharts, texts, illustrated table
  • include maps, diagrams and charts to support  text
  • show evidence of research on a specific topic
  • are more specialised, causal and sequential
  • give evidence of simple causal – effect understandings
  • use technical language, describing components and action, e.g. crystallised.

Examples of an explanation expected at Stage 2:

Explanation Stage 2

Data collection and analysis

What is it?

Data collecting: The process of capturing or collecting factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion or calculation. This information needs to be processed to be meaningful. It may consist of numbers, words, or images, particularly as measurements or observations of a set of variables. Graphs and tables are used to organise information.


What is its purpose?

The purpose of a table is to organise information to enable easy access. It consists of a title, columns with headings and information.

What are the expectations at Stage 2?

At Stage 2 students are expected to:

  • conduct surveys, classify and organise data into simple tables and 2-way tables
  • construct computer generated tables, e.g. spreadsheet
  • use data in tables to generate graphs
  • question to obtain information
  • interpret data presented in simple and 2-way tables.

Examples of tables expected at Stage 2:

In a Stage 2 ‘Living Things’ task, students were asked to investigate the types of living things in the school environment. Each group’s findings were recorded using tally marks and class results were displayed in a simple table.

Graph Stage 2

In a Stage 2 ‘Products and Services’ task, students were required to design a new product package. Year 1 students were surveyed to determine the most popular drink at dinner and results were recorded in a 2-way table.

Graph Stage 2

In a Stage 2 ‘Physical Phenomena’ task students were asked to investigate if there is a relationship between different release heights on a ramp and distance a toy car would travel. Students used 2-way tables to record their observations.

Table stage 2

In a Stage 2 ‘Physical Phenomena’ task, students were learning about forces. They gathered a variety of materials and tested whether they were attracted to a magnet. Results were displayed in a simple word table and this data was used to further classify items.

Table Stage2

Students were surveyed about their favourite colours. Data was displayed in a 2-way table using tally marks and numbers.

Tables Stage 2





What is its purpose?

The purpose of a graph is to organise, display and summarise information so that patterns and relationships can be identified. Features include a title, axes labelled with variables and units of measurement.

What are the expectations at Stage 2?

At Stage 2 students are expected to:
construct vertical and horizontal column graphs and picture graphs on grid paper using one-to-one correspondence
mark equal spaces on axes, label axes and name the display
interpret data presented in column graphs and picture graphs
represent the same data in more than one way, e.g. picture graphs, column graphs and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each representation
compare tables and graphs constructed from the same data to determine which is the most appropriate method of display
use simple graphing software to enter data and create a graph
interpret graphs found on the Internet, in media and in factual texts.

Examples of graphs expected at Stage 2:














graph 2c


What is its purpose?

The purpose of a drawing is to provide a pictorial representation of an object or event. Drawings include sketches, diagrams and maps. They can be accompanied by a heading/title, labels, arrows, captions and a relative scale to indicate size.

Types of drawings which can be used at Stage 2 include:

A labelled diagram is a representation used to illustrate the shape, size and features of an object.
A cross section is a diagram used to show the inside of an object. It includes a drawing with a heading, labels and arrows, and a caption.
A timeline is used to represent a sequence of events. It includes a heading, a caption, units of time, symbols or words to label events.
A force-arrow diagram uses arrows to represent push and pull forces. Arrows can be used to indicate the direction of the force. A pull is indicated by an arrow pointing away from the object. A push is indicated by an arrow pointing towards the object.
A flow chart is a graphic organiser used to describe a sequence of events, or the stages in a process. A linear flow chart arranges the information in one line and uses arrows to indicate the order in which to read the text.
Concept drawings and sketches: Sketches are an aid to thinking in three dimensions; they are a means for students to communicate their solutions. Sketches can be further refined to include labels and dimensions - leading to the development of a working drawing that can be used in the production of a product.

What are the expectations at Stage 2?

At Stage 2 students are expected to:

  • draw labelled diagrams include a title, a freehand sketch with some detail showing the relative size and position of features they have observed
  • draw simple maps and plans, e.g. bedroom
  • attempt to show depth of simple objects
  • draw three-dimensional objects from different views
  • construct computer generated drawings of 3D objects, attempting to show depth
  • show different orientations of 2D shapes
  • create tessellating designs by using computer drawing tools using copying, pasting and rotating regular shapes
  • trace along sides of shapes to draw angles.

    Drawing stage 2
    Drawing stage 2


What is its purpose?

The purpose of a model is to create a 3D representation of a large object or design. It can be a scaled copy of an actual object or prototype of a design.

What are the expectations at Stage 2?

At Stage 2 students are expected to:
create models from viewing a three-dimensional object, picture or photograph
construct two-dimensional shapes from a variety of materials
compare rigid frames
create models from drawings of different views.

Examples of models expected at Stage 2:

Models Stage 2 Models Stage 2
Models Stage 2 Models Stage 2




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